Freethought of the Day

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There are 4 entries for this date: Diego Rivera , Baron d'Holbach , James Thurber and Bjornstjerne Bjornson
Diego Rivera

Diego Rivera

On this date in 1886, painter Diego Rivera was born in Guanajuato, Mexico. Rivera attended art school at the Academy of San Carlos in Mexico City. He then traveled to Europe to study art, later incorporating what he learned about Renaissance frescoes (painting on wet plaster) in his murals. In 1921, he returned to Mexico and became a chronicler of the people via a series of murals. Rivera, along with fellow Mexican painters Jose Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros, led the peoples' mural movement. Their murals were usually located in public places and reflected social, political and national themes. His monumental stairway mural in Mexico's National Palace, Mexico City, is unabashedly critical of religion, particularly the Roman Catholic invaders of Mexico, shown as conquerors conducting autos de fe. The mural depicts the mythical and precolonial, pre-Christian history of Mexico, and records the Spanish enslavement of native Indians. The final mural, which depicts various injustices toward the people, goes after a triumvirate of "Banker, Army, and Church." A priest is shown cavorting with a woman en dishabille.

Rivera's most famous mural is "Man, Controller of the Universe." He painted it in 1934 as a re-creation of his mural "Man at the Crossroads," which was commissioned by Nelson Rockefeller and then destroyed because Rivera refused to remove a portrait of Lenin from the mural. "Man, Controller of the Universe" represents the world in the 1930s and contains portraits of Lenin and Leon Trotsky. Rivera painted "Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in Alameda Park" between 1947 and 1948. This mural originally included the image of the activist and atheist Ignacio Ramirez holding a sign inscribed "Dios no existe." Because Rivera refused to remove the inscription, the hotel that held the mural refused to show it. Rivera eventually removed the inscription nine years later and reaffirmed his atheism.
Rivera married several times, most famously in stormy marriages to Mexican painter Frida Kahlo, also an ardent nonbeliever. D. 1957.

 

"To affirm 'God does not exist', I do not have to hide behind Don Ignacio Ramírez; I am an atheist and I consider religions to be a form of collective neurosis. I am not an enemy of the Catholics, as I am not an enemy of the tuberculars, the myopic or the paralytics; you cannot be an enemy of the sick, only their good friend in order to help them cure themselves."

—--Diego Rivera in “Siqueieros: His Life and Works” by Philip Stein, published 1994.

Compiled by Sarah Eucalano

© Freedom From Religion Foundation. All rights reserved.

Baron d'Holbach

Baron d'Holbach

On this date in 1723, encyclopedist and the Enlightenment's most passionate atheist, Paul Henri Baron von Holbach, was born in Edesheim, Germany, into a Catholic family. An uncle who became a wealthy nobleman brought Holbach to Paris when he was 12, educated him and left him his fortune. Holbach studied law in Holland, returned to Paris, and inherited more wealth. Generously sharing his wealth, Holbach was dubbed the "maitre d'hotel of philosophy." Holbach befriended the Encyclopedists, including Denis Diderot, and corresponded with top thinkers of the Enlightenment. His Parisian home became a hub of the Enlightenment, where intellectuals such as David Hume and visitors such as Benjamin Franklin rubbed shoulders with European aristocrats. Holbach wrote several articles for the Encyclopedia and also translated German scholars, then began writing his philosophical pieces in secret. He did not sign his name to these atheistic and anticlerical works, so, although some were condemned to be burnt by the French parliament, he was spared prosecution. He eventually inspired a "Holbachian" movement of anticlericalism and philosophical materialism.

Holbach's writings include a series of works published in 1770 inquiring into the historicity of Jesus, the saints and other freethought subjects. Christianity Unveiled was published in 1766, The Holy Disease in 1768, System of Nature in 1770, and Le Bon sens (Common Sense) in 1772, followed by several political and moral treatises. In Common Sense, Holbach wrote that "Religion is a mere castle in the air. Theology is ignorance of natural causes; a tissue of fallacies and contradictions." He believed: "Knowledge, Reason, and Liberty, can alone reform and make men happier." He optimistically predicted: "If the ignorance of nature gave birth to the gods, knowledge of nature is destined to destroy them." Holbach translated and adapted many major deistic English writings, including works by John Toland and Thomas Hobbes. Holbach particularly criticized Catholicism as an obstacle to freedom and the common good. System of Nature proposed a society governed by the enlightened, which renounced historic errors. D. 1789.

“ . . . In all parts of our globe, fanatics have cut each other's throats, publicly burnt each other, committed without a scruple and even as a duty, the greatest crimes, and shed torrents of blood . . . 

Savage and furious nations, perpetually at war, adore, under divers names, some God, conformable to their ideas, that is to say, cruel, carnivorous, selfish, blood-thirsty. We find, in all the religions, 'a God of armies,' a 'jealous God,' an 'avenging God,' a 'destroying God,' a 'God,' who is pleased with carnage, and whom his worshippers consider it a duty to serve. Lambs, bulls, children, men, and women, are sacrificed to him. Zealous servants of this barbarous God think themselves obliged even to offer up themselves as a sacrifice to him. Madmen may everywhere be seen, who, after meditating upon their terrible God, imagine that to please him they must inflict on themselves, the most exquisite torments. The gloomy ideas formed of the deity, far from consoling them, have every where disquieted their minds, and prejudiced follies destructive to happiness.

How could the human mind progress, while tormented with frightful phantoms, and guided by men, interested in perpetuating its ignorance and fears? Man has been forced to vegetate in his primitive stupidity: he has been taught stories about invisible powers upon whom his happiness was supposed to depend. Occupied solely by his fears, and by unintelligible reveries, he has always been at the mercy of priests, who have reserved to themselves the right of thinking for him, and of directing his actions.”

Compiled by Annie Laurie Gaylor

© Freedom From Religion Foundation. All rights reserved.

James Thurber

James Thurber

On this date in 1894, humorist and cartoonist James Thurber was born in Columbus, Ohio. He called his mother—who once impersonated a cripple at a faith-healing rally in order to leap up and call herself cured—a "born comedienne." Thurber was partially blinded as a young boy when his brother accidentally shot an arrow into his eye. He could not serve in WWI, but attended Ohio State University from 1913-1918. He was a code clerk in Washington, D.C., and at the US Embassy in Paris, then became a newspaperman. He wrote for the Chicago Tribune from Paris, and joined the Evening Post staff in New York in 1927, then The New Yorker. He wrote a satire of psychoanalysis, Is Sex Necessary (1929) with E.B. White, featuring his drawings, which immediately became popular. Thurber's eyesight worsened in the 1930s and 1940s. His books included My Life and Hard Times (1933), Fables for Our Time ("Early to rise and early to bed makes a male healthy and wealthy and dead"), and two modern fairy tales for children in the 1950s. His most famous story was "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty," about a meek husband with an absurdly rich inner fantasy life, which spawned a 1947 movie starring Danny Kaye. Thurber defined: "The wit makes fun of other persons; the satirist makes fun of the world; the humorist makes fun of himself, but in so doing, he identifies himself with people—that is, people everywhere, not for the purpose of taking them apart, but simply revealing their true nature." His biographer, Harrison Kinney, wrote: "Thurber had never allowed his probing, restless mind to settle on any single theological insurance policy concerning the possibilities of the hereafter. He remained an agnostic . . . " (cited in Who's Who in Hell by Warren Allen Smith). D. 1961.

“It is better to know some of the questions than all of the answers.”

Compiled by Annie Laurie Gaylor

© Freedom From Religion Foundation. All rights reserved.

Bjornstjerne Bjornson

Bjornstjerne Bjornson

On this date in 1832, Nobel Laureate in Literature Bjornstjerne Bjornson was born in Norway. The son of a Lutheran minister, Bjornson was a journalist, then a playwright and novelist who also directed theatre. Bjornson wrote the first realistic contemporary play, with Ibsen following suit. Bjornson's plays were the first Norwegian works to be performed outside Scandinavia. Standing next to Ibsen in acclaim, Bjornson became what freethought historian Joseph McCabe termed "an aggressive Agnostic" in 1875, after reading Herbert Spencer. He was also influenced by Darwin and J.S. Mill. His story, "Dust" (1882), showed the harm of religious influence. Bjornson wrote Whence Came the Miracles of the New Testament? (1882), translated Ingersoll and was an Honorary Associate of the Rationalist Press Association. For three decades he was a leader of Norwegian republicans. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1903. D. 1910.

Compiled by Annie Laurie Gaylor

© Freedom From Religion Foundation. All rights reserved.

Freethought of the Day

Would you like to start your day on a freethought note? "Freethought of the Day" is a daily freethought calendar brought to you courtesy of the Freedom From Religion Foundation, highlighting birthdates, quotes, and other historic tidbits.

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