America’s “Nones” — the nonreligious — are at an all-time high, now comprising nearly one in five Americans (19%), according to a new study by the Pew Center for the People and the Press. The 19% count is based on aggregated surveys of 19,377 people conducted by the Pew Research Center throughout 2011 and reported by USA Today.
“This means great news for progress, for reasoned debate, for the status of nonbelievers in our nation,” said FFRF Co-President Dan Barker. “The freethought movement and FFRF are growing rapidly. There is an explosion of local and campus freethought groups, activities and conferences.”
“Nones” were already the fastest-growing segment of the U.S. population, according to the definitive American Religious Identification Survey, whose 2008 study showed adult Nones up to 15% from 6% in 1990. ARIS, released in 2009, actually estimated “Nones” at 20% if responses to broader questions about religious practices were included.
Freethinkers have been highly marginalized, in part for being perceived as making up a small segment of the U.S. population. Actually, there have always been many more nonreligious than Jews, Muslims, Mormons or Eastern religions’ adherents, currently respectively at 1.2%, 0.6%, 1.4% and 0.9% of the U.S. population, according to ARIS.
“Most minority religions, however tiny in numbers, are treated with respect, inclusion and sometimes deference. It’s time public officials and the American public wake up to the changing demographics and stop treating atheists and agnostics as outsiders,” added Annie Laurie Gaylor, who co-directs FFRF with Barker.
“With nonbelievers at about 20% of the population, there is no longer any excuse for leaving us out of the equation. Public officials cannot continue to assume ‘all Americans’ believe in a deity, or continue to offend 20% of the population by imposing prayer at governmental meetings or government-hosted events. These surveys now show that ‘In God We Trust’ is a provenly inaccurate motto. Nonbelievers should not be treated as political pariahs,” Gaylor said.
“ ‘Nones’ in fact were at the time of the last ARIS survey, the second-largest ‘denomination’ in the nation,” Barker said, “following Catholics at 25% and tied with Baptists at 15%. According to the new Pew study, nonbelievers now outrank Baptists.”
An atheist for president?
While 90% of Americans would vote for a black, a woman, Catholic, Hispanic, or Jewish presidential candidate, only 54% would vote for an atheist and only 58% would vote for a Muslim, according to a recent Gallup poll. It’s an improvement from 1958, when Gallup first asked the question and just 18% said they’d vote for an atheist. This is the first year a majority said it would vote for an atheist candidate.
Gallup began asking a Mormon question in 1967, when former Michigan Gov. George Romney, Mitt Romney’s father, was a top candidate for the GOP nomination. That year, 19% said they wouldn’t vote for a Mormon for president. Now, 18% wouldn’t vote for a qualified Mormon, down from 22% in 2011.
U.S. District Court Judge Michael Urbanski accepted a settlement July 3 and ended the lawsuit between a Giles County, Va., parent and student and the Giles County School Board. Attorneys for the American Civil Liberties Union of Virginia and the Freedom From Religion Foundation filed the suit last fall.
The school board has agreed that the Ten Commandments will not be posted in any school “unless and until there is precedent in the Fourth Circuit or United States Supreme Court allowing the posting of the text of the Ten Commandments in the public schools.”
Supreme Court precedent states that such postings are impermissible. The Supreme Court ruled in Stone v. Graham that Ten Commandments displays in public schools violate the Establishment Clause.
“No government authorities, including school officials, have the right to tell citizens, much less a captive audience of students, which god to worship, how many gods to worship or whether to worship any god at all,” said Annie Laurie Gaylor, FFRF co-president.
FFRF first contested the postings in Giles County schools in December 2010 on behalf of a local complainant. State/church watchdog FFRF has more than 19,000 members, including about 500 in Virginia.
In response to the complaint, Superintendent Terry Arbogast removed the Ten Commandments from Giles County schools in January 2011. They had been posted in a frame with the U.S. Constitution in all district schools for over a decade. Members of local churches were outraged and stormed the school board seeking to reinstall the Ten Commandments. Students at one school walked out of classes in protest. Some students called for people objecting to the displays to “go live somewhere else.”
The board voted to repost them and adopted a policy to allow displays of the Ten Commandments and nine other “historical documents” in schools. The board also approved a Ten Commandments display in Narrows High School in Narrows, a town of about 2,000.
A Narrows student and parent sued in September 2011. The plaintiffs sought a protective order shielding their identity because of the animus expressed by the public. Liberty Counsel, a Christian legal group affiliated with Liberty University, represented the board and filed a brief opposing the ability of the plaintiffs to use pseudonyms. Urbanski issued a protective order, saying in part, “no harassment, threats, intimidation, or interference with the plaintiffs will be tolerated.”
During the course of litigation, other items were added to the Narrows High School display, including portraits and select items on George Washington, Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson. In May, 26 items were on display.
Urbanski’s approval of the settlement ended the long and contentious dispute. In addition to assurances that the Commandments would not be reposted in school, the settlement agreement kept the protective order in effect. The school board or a third party would pay the plaintiffs’ legal costs ($6,511). Each side is responsible for their own attorney fees.
Recent changes by the school board and the settlement agreement altered some elements of the display. A page from a Prentice Hall U.S. history textbook replaced the Ten Commandments. The page includes an infographic titled “Roots of Democracy” and includes statements on “Judeo-Christian Roots,” “The Enlightenment,” “English Parliamentary Traditions” and “Greco-Roman Roots.” References to the Commandments were removed from a separate “explanation document” in the display.
The court retains jurisdiction to enforce the settlement for eight years following dismissal of the case.
“FFRF thanks the courageous student and parent who stood up for the U.S. Constitution. We are grateful for the dedicated work of the attorneys on the case, Rebecca Glenberg and Thomas Fitzpatrick of the ACLU of Virginia, Frank Feibelman, cooperating attorney for the ACLU, and Patrick Elliott from FFRF,” said FFRF Co-President Dan Barker.
Name: Patricia Jones.
Where I live: I live on a plateau in rural middle Tennessee.
Where I was born: I come from Michigan and never thought I’d be living in the South. But in one year’s time, I’ve actually met more atheists in “bible belt” Tennessee than I ever did in the North.
Family: A small one — daughter, son-in-law, granddaughter (one of each), and of course, my husband Mike — atheists all.
Education: I’m a graduate of the garden variety public school, but I like to think of myself as an autodidact.
Occupation: I was a home health care aide for 10 years. I also worked in a florist shop and for the Post Office. Currently, I’m a builder of rock walls.
How I got where I am today: I suppose the best way to describe my atheism is to say that religion just didn’t stick with me. The silly bible stories sounded a lot like fairy tales, and I knew those weren’t real. I read Ayn Rand’s Anthem when I was 14, and it was then that I knew religion was a conjured lie.
Where I’m headed: I’m currently the administrator of Cookeville Atheists & Agnostics. It’s a social meetup group with eight to 10 active members and 42 total in our ranks.
Persons I admire: I most admire women in science. Caroline Herschel was an astronomer like her brother William. Another is the venerable Rosalind Franklin. It was her photographs that made it possible for Crick and Watson to see the structure of DNA. Two amazing women to acclaim.
Quotations I like: “What do we live for, if it is not to make life less difficult for each other?” (George Eliot), and, “Self education is, I firmly believe, the only kind of education there is.” (Isaac Asimov)
Things I deplore: Oh, don’t get me started!
The way I promote freethought: I have a huge collection of books, all thoroughly read and reread in my home library, and telescopes that are kid magnets. When children are around me, not only do I introduce science and secularism, I tell them about the Constitution. I make it fun and speak in conversational tones so children don’t feel as though they are in school.
They just know they are around a grown-up, one who listens to them and tells them cool and exciting things. We do the stuff of science. I tell them how smart they are, and I tell them to question everything, even me. I tell them thinking is not always easy, but it’s better than someone else doing it for them.
Some favorite things: My loving family, my cherished library, astronomy, the Cookeville meetup group, gardening and rocks, especially laying “miles” of dry stone walls, keeping state and church separate, and lastly, being “discovered” by Darrell Barker. It was through my Facebook friendship with Darrell that I learned about FFRF. I post in the FFRF Forum (ffrf.org/get-involved/forum/) with the username “rockon.”
Statistics about my Wall of Separation: Darrell calls it “The Great Wall of Patricia.” I started building it as a solo project in 2009. As of April, it was about 900 feet long. The average height and width are 26 by 22 inches.
Although the rock shapes and quantity vary significantly, a pickup truck load weighs about a ton. To date, I’ve hauled 106 truckloads. I know, I know, it’s hard for me to imagine that, too. The nearest approximation to the amount of rocks placed in the wall is about 84,700.
U.S. District Judge Dana Christensen ruled Nov. 27 that the Freedom From Religion Foundation's lawsuit against the U.S. Forest Service and the Catholic Knights of Columbus council in Kalispell, Mont., can proceed.
FFRF sued in February 2012, seeking a declaration that the "continued presence of a six-foot-tall statue of Jesus Christ in the Flathead National Forest, on a 25-by-25-foot plot owned and administered by the United States Forest Service, violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States."
The Knights placed the shrine in 1954 after receiving a special-use permit from the government. The Forest Service continued to sanction the shrine overlooking the Big Mountain ski run until the most recent lease ran out in late 2010.
The Forest Service announced in 2011 it wouldn't renew the permit but later, after being pressured politically, reversed the denial on the grounds the statue qualified as a historical display, which spurred FFRF's lawsuit.
After the suit was filed and several defendants sought to have it dismissed, FFRF submitted a declaration by local resident William Cox, who asserted he "had and will continue to have direct and unwelcome contact with the statue."
In his Nov. 27 ruling, Christensen said: "Cox's declaration meets [standing requirements. He is a member of FFRF, he lives 15 miles from Whitefish Mountain Resort, he is a frequent skier at the resort who has skied past the statue many times previously and intends to again this winter, and he is a non-believer who considers the statue religious in nature and offensive."
The judge added, "Cox would have standing to sue in his own right if he were a named plaintiff."
FFRF is asking the court to enjoin the defendant from continuing to approve the shrine for federal property and ordering the Forest Service to direct the Knights of Columbus to remove it.
The case was filed on FFRF's behalf by attorney Richard L. Bolton and local counsel Martin S. King. A trial is scheduled for March.
Christensen, who was confirmed as an Obama appointee in December 2011, had practiced law in the Kalispell area since 1977.
FFRF, with the help of area secularists (see group photo above) in Wenatchee, Wash., placed an election-year caveat, “God and government a dangerous mix,” on a billboard in July at the intersection of South Mission Street and Ferry in Wenatchee. An identical billboard went up in late July in Okanogan, on Highway 97 just north of milepost 282, two miles north of the turnoff for Malott and five miles south of the southernmost exit to Okanogan.
FFRF, with 18,500 members nationwide, including almost 1,000 in Washington, placed the messages in tandem with its members and individuals connected with North Central Washington Freethinkers of Wenatchee, a local meetup group. FFRF thanks them for donating toward the costs and arranging the rentals.
“Our efforts this year are to once again remind the public that ‘We, the people’ need to preserve our Founding Fathers’ goal to give this country’s citizens a secular government without dangerous religious entanglements,” said Kurt Wyant, a member of FFRF and spokesperson for NCW Freethinkers of Wenatchee.
The Freedom From Religion Foundation, a state/church watchdog based in Madison, Wis., and the nation’s largest freethought association, with more than 18,500 members, is racking up legal victory after legal victory, separating religion from government and generating news coverage all over the nation.
Although FFRF jokes that it is often overlooked as a “nonprofit and a nonprophet in its own land,” its increasing work caught the eye of reporter Steve Elbow of The Capital Times in Madison, which ran an Aug. 2 news story headlined “Madison group ramps up national fight against religion in government.”
FFRF’s legal staff, which has doubled to four attorneys since the start of the year, has already sent out more formal letters of complaint (612) protesting state/church entanglements than in all of last year. Many such complaints generate major news coverage and end in responses ending a diverse multitude of state/church “sins” without court battles.
FFRF currently has nine lawsuits in state or federal court, but “Our aim is to end these through education and persuasion, without having to go to court whenever possible,” said FFRF Co-President Annie Laurie Gaylor.
The impressive list of major state/church entanglements that FFRF action has halted in midsummer alone includes:
• Prayers by the Henrico County, Va., Board of Supervisors. Officials swiftly dropped a 25-year abuse after a July 10 vote, following a July 2 letter by FFRF Staff Attorney Patrick Elliott: “The board compounds the violation when the prayers are to Jesus and/or most of the officiants are Christian or Christian clergy. Sectarian prayers make religious minorities and nonbelievers feel like political outsiders in their own community and show an unconstitutional governmental preference for Christianity over other faiths and for religion over nonreligion.”
A local citizen contacted FFRF after an overtly Christian prayer, which included “in Christ’s name,” was delivered at a June meeting. Elliott pointed out that the 4th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals consistently struck down sectarian prayers four times recently.
Joseph Rapisarda, county attorney, issued a statement: “The board was briefed on the legal ramifications of having a sectarian prayer. After careful consideration, the board decided to end the practice of having an opening prayer, effective immediately.”
• A city-hosted nativity display in Ellwood, City, Pa. A saga that began last December, sparking huge controversy, a lot of crankmail, a prayer rally and media coverage, ended sedately with a victory for FFRF and secular government. Seven months after legal staffers Patrick Elliott and Andrew Seidel first protested the display at the municipal building, the borough council on July 16 voted down a proposal intended to resurrect the entanglement.
A city “Nativity Committee” drafted what Ellwood City Ledger reporter Eric Poole called “a convoluted, complicated, constitutionally bereft proposal that slaps a figurative ‘SUE ME’ sign on the borough’s back.” Poole added, “This shouldn’t be about winning or losing, but about honoring an American principle — that all citizens, regardless of their religious beliefs or lack thereof, stand equally before the civil authority.”
FFRF thanks FFRF member Stephen Hirtle for his invaluable assistance and dedication in monitoring and helping to end this major violation.
• A city-sponsored prayer breakfast in Augusta, Ga. After two months of back and forths with FFRF, the city agreed to discontinue its unconstitutional involvement in organizing, coordinating and promoting the monthly “Mayor’s Prayer Breakfast.” Major Deke Copenhaver, who initially insisted no laws were being broken, told a local news channel: “Being mayor is what I do. My faith is who I am, and I feel very strong about that.”
An open records request filed by Senior Staff Attorney Rebecca Markert revealed that Karyn Nixon, executive assistant to the mayor, coordinated the event, including selecting the churches, sending out invitations, putting together an agenda and even instructing pastors to include scripture readings and opening prayer and remarks by the hosting pastor.
Nixon used city e-mail and phones during normal business hours. Aside from one breakfast in 2009 at a Jewish synagogue, all prayer events have been held at Christian churches or by Christian groups.
On Aug. 2, Andrew Mackenzie, general counsel, responded: “Mayor Copenhaver will continue to attend the monthly Prayer Breakfasts, but he has volunteered [sic] to allow the organization, coordination and promotion of such breakfasts to be done exclusively by private sponsors.”
The event will no longer be advertised on the city’s website with the misleading title, “Mayor’s Prayer Breakfast.” It will be replaced with “Community Prayer Breakfast” to “avoid the appearance of city endorsement.”
• Two church bulletin discounts by restaurants. FFRF is helping Pennsylvania member John Wolfe, an octogenarian, protest a Civil Rights violation by Cajun Kitchen in Columbia, Pa., whereby patrons who did not turn in church bulletins paid 10% more for their Sunday breakfasts.
FFRF’s Rebecca Markert wrote three letters over 18 months in a patient attempt to educate the restaurant owners that they were violating the Civil Rights Act. It reads in relevant part: “All persons shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, and accommodations of any place of public accommodation . . . without discrimination on the ground of race, color, religion, or national origin.”
Co-owner Sharon Prudhomme justified the discount by saying she’s a “hardworking American” and can “advertise as I see fit.” Wolff filed a complaint with the state Human Relations Commission and a resolution is expected.
Read John Wolff’s letter on the subject on page 6. When the complaint was first reported, it provoked many nasty comments to and about John and FFRF. FFRF Co-President Annie Laurie Gaylor wrote a blog, “Don’t ‘discount’ civil rights,” about the importance of upholding the Civil Rights Act. Visit ffrf.org/news/blog or see page 10.
FFRF also stopped a church bulletin discount at Wendy’s Old-Fashioned Hamburgers in Valdosta, Ga. The restaurant was offering a 10% Sunday discount to those bearing a church bulletin as proof they’d been to church that day. FFRF was notified in July that the unlawful discount has stopped.
• Prayers before an Indiana school board. FFRF Staff Attorney Stephanie Schmitt wrote the South Dearborn School Board in April protesting the recent inauguration of prayer to start monthly meetings. The board opened with the Lord’s Prayer. Schmitt wrote that “opening school board meetings with a Christian prayer discriminates not only against nonbelievers, but also against any non-Christian attendees. Parents and students should not be made to feel like outsiders when attending meetings.”
FFRF was notified July 3 that the prayer has been discontinued.
• Army abuse in Georgia. The U.S. Army “no longer wants YOU! to mow the Catholic Charities’ lawn” after Andrew Seidel wrote a July 5 letter objecting to soldiers providing “area beautification support to the Catholic Social Services.”
The practice of the Regimental Noncommissioned Officer Academy’s Advanced Leader Course at Fort Gordon, Ga., was to send soldiers to mow the grass for Catholic Social Services, whose motto is, “In every season, God is with us.” Commented Seidel: “Now, in every season they are responsible for trimming their own hedges and raking their own leaves.” While the Army now claims it relied on volunteers, the relationship has ceased.
• Plans to inaugurate prayer before a Pennsylvania school board. The Sharpesville Area School Board in late July assured FFRF it would not go forward with a proposal to inaugurate prayer at its meetings or implement a religious class. FFRF’s Stephanie Schmitt sent three letters starting in February after a board member, saying “the guy up above is very important to us,” recommended prayers begin.
The letter noted that the Third Circuit, which encompasses Pennsylvania, has ruled against school board prayer, considering it analogous to prayer in public schools.
• A variety of school-related violations. FFRF treats intrusion of proselytizing and religious ritual in public schools as a top priority. Stephanie Schmitt wrote Thomas County Schools, Thomasville, Ga., over a violation at a middle school, when the principal announced over the intercom on March 20 that a group (apparently Gideons International) was in the school “and would be distributing bibles to whoever [sic] was interested in taking one.”
Schmitt noted a long list of cases barring Gideons’ distribution of New Testaments in schools. FFRF received assurance July 16 there would be no repetition of this violation.
In July, FFRF also received assurances from Hastings [Mich.] Area Schools that prayers were not said at this year’s graduation ceremony as they had been for the past decade.
FFRF wrote the Tishomingo County School District in Iuka, Miss., after receiving complaints that teachers at Iuka Elementary were leading students in daily prayer before heading to the lunchroom and asking students to lead prayer.
In July, after several follow-ups, Schmitt received word that faculty would no longer “be encouraging students to pray or lead students in prayer.”
From January through June, FFRF took about 1,275 formal requests for help to end constitutional violations. On “backlog Thursday” in late July, the legal staff, including three summer interns, drafted a record 67 letters of complaint in one day (interns wrote by far the most)!
FFRF thanks its summer interns and dedicated staff attorneys. “Our legal staff is so busy ending violations that we literally have trouble finding room to report all of our major actions in Freethought Today,” said Gaylor.
See other recent actions reported on page 9 of this issue and major complaints reported elsewhere. FFRF regularly updates legal victories online at: ffrf.org/legal/other-legal-successes/
FFRF also issues press releases about many of its complaints and victories. Sign up to get press releases and news updates sent to your inbox at: