On this date in 1832, Moncure Daniel Conway was born into a conservative, pro-slavery Virginia family. Becoming a Methodist minister at an early age, Conway soon gravitated toward Unitarianism. He graduated from Harvard Divinity School in 1854 as a Unitarian minister. Conway was much influenced by his "spiritual father," Ralph Waldo Emerson, and abolitionist Theodore Parker. By 1862, Conway, whose liberality had alienated his congregations, dropped Unitarianism. Conway helped about 30 of his father's slaves escape to freedom at the start of the Civil War. After embarking on an abolitionist speaking tour abroad, Conway was offered a position in 1863 at the South Place Chapel in London, an independent and increasingly freethinking congregation. Under Conway's tutelage, the chapel became an open-minded hub of new ideas, showcasing the day's newsmakers and intelligensia.
Conway, who had become an agnostic, is known for his Life of Paine (1892), the first major positive biography about the revolutionary. Conway researched and wrote other biographies, including one on Hawthorne. He also edited a four-volume edition of Paine's works and wrote several other books, such as Demonology and Devil Lore (1879). Conway, who had returned to America when his wife was dying, became an expatriate in Paris following his disgust with the U.S. war against Spain. (Theodore Roosevelt had even invited arch-critic Conway to join the Spanish.) Conway completed his autobiography in 1904. When the South Place Ethical Society built its new facilities in Red Lion Square, London, in 1929, it named the building "Conway Hall." Regular meetings are still held at Conway Hall every Sunday. Its library is adorned with portraits of freethinkers, including many of Conway. D. 1907.